Level : English Education Departement Students
Semester : 6th
Subject : Writing 4
Topic : Writing Argumentative Essay
Meeting : 1st
Duration : 1 x 60 minutes
Method : GTM
Goal Competency: Students are able to express their argument in a written text about a trending topic in the society.
2. Have a small talk about a recent trending topic in the society.
3. Lecturer explains and gives an example of argumentative essay
4. Lecturer explains the procedures of making argumentative essay
5. Lecturer has the students read the passage and translate the meaning
6. Lecturer makes the student write an outline of argumentative essay (if the time is not enough, we can make it as homework)
How to Write an Effective Argument Essay:
Creating an Argument Outline
Although there is no set model of organization for argumentative essays, there are some common patterns that writers might use or that writers might want to combine/customize in an effective way.
A Shocking Traditional
Female circumcision is also known, more
accurately, as female genital mutilation
and female genital cutting (FGC.) There
are three forms of FGC. The first is a
clitoridectomy, the cutting and/or
removal of the hood of the clit
oris and all or part of the
clitoris. The second is an excision which removes the clitoris, the hood, and the labia
minor (the inner folds of the vulva that is
responsible for producing lubrication.) The
infibulation is the third and mo
st radical which also removes everything in the excision
along with the labia majora, th
e outer folds of the vulva. Once removed the sides of the
vulva are sewn together leaving a small ho
le (about pencil size) for the flow of
menstruation and urine. Th
e tradition of FGC dates back
more than 1000 years and is
practiced in parts of Asia, the Far East, Eu
rope, Asia, South America, and even amongst
certain ethnic groups in the United States.
Aisha Abdel Majid tells of her experien
ce in an interview with Rogaia Mustafa
Abusharaf, an anthropologist
born in Sudan, in her articl
e “Unmasking the Tradition of
Female Circumcision.” Majid describes her cu
tting is when she was only 6 years old. She
recalls being taken by her mother and two
aunts to the midwife in the neighborhood known
for performing circumcisions. She is told th
at she is going to be
purified. Upon this
realization Aisha tries to break
free but is forced down and
ordered onto a bed of ropes
with a hole in the middle. She accounts,
“They held me tight while the midwife starte
d to cut my flesh without anesthetics. I
screamed till I lost my voice. The midwife was saying to me, ‘Do you want me to
be taken into police custody?’ After the j
ob was done I could not eat, drink or even
pass urine for three days. I remember one
of my uncles who discovered what they
did to me threatened to press charges agains
t his sisters. They were afraid of him
and they decided to bring me back to the
midwife. In her sternest voice she ordered
me to squat on the floor and urinate. It s
eemed like the most difficult thing to do at
that point, but I did it. I urinated
for a long time and was shivering with
pain.”(Abusharif pgs 1-2)
Aisha continues on though it took her a long ti
me to recover looking back now over forty
years later she understands the motivations of
her mother wanting her to be clean, but it
was a lot of anguish. Clearly, female circumci
sion is an inhumane pr
actice justified with
ignorant beliefs and false benefits.
This is one testimony similar to millions of instances that occur each year.
According to 3 separate studies published in Bi
oethics details the severity of the type of
circumcisions varied greatly by region. A st
udy in Sierra Leone found that thirty nine
percent of females had undergone the clitorid
ectomy, sixty percent
the excision, and about
1 percent the infibulations. The same y
ear, 1982, a study was done in Somalia eighty
percent of the operations were
the excision. The article
also includes a study done in 1993
that found “the pervasiveness of genital mutila
tion in Africa ranged from 10 percent in
Tanzania to 98 percent in Djibouti”(Circumcis
ion pg1.) Regardless of how evasive the
genital cutting done the low estimate found in
a clinical report from The Alan Guttmacher
Institute more than 100 million women have had some
level of FGC. It is also estimated 2
million more girls from ages four to twelve
years old will be cut annually. A motivational
factor behind this testim
ony was for purification.
Purification is one of the traditional beliefs
of why FGC is necessary. The word for
circumcision in traditional Arabic is
meaning to purify. While FGC occurs in
varying religions it is most strong in the Isla
m religion and is believed to be requirement by
many Muslims. The Koran, the bible of Islam,
however nowhere in it refers to female
circumcision. Mohammed, the god of the
Muslims, declared rights for women although
they are to be considered below men. M
ohammed displayed humanity toward females
when he banned the old Arabic pre-Islam
practice of burying undesired female babies
cites in the following verse, “Sur
a 2:228,” that women have rights too
“...Women shall with justice ha
ve rights similar to those ex
ercised against them, although
men have a status above wome
n. God is mighty and wise” (qt
d. in Voula pg2.) Therefore,
the justification via religi
ous beliefs is unfounded confirmed by the main offending
religions messiah himself.
Another commonly held belief behind FGC is
that there is some form of medical
benefit to the girl. In Nigeri
a there are ethnic groups that believe if a baby comes into
contact with the clitoris during childbirth the ba
by will die. Others believe the clitoris will
grow to be penis like and drag on the ground.
Female genitalia are believed by some to be
poisonous to sperm and must be removed to main
tain fertility. None
of these beliefs are
true; in fact FGC has quite th
e opposite effect on fertility a
nd the health of the girls.
Infertility can in truth be a medical compli
cation caused by the cutting. The death of a
child does not happen due to contact with a clito
ris in the birth, but the obstructed labor as
a result of the cutting can cause
the baby to be born with brain damage or even dead. In a
clinical report done in acco
rdance with classification de
signed by the World Health
Organization the studies show, “Infants born
to women who had undergone the moderately
severe and most severe types of
mutilation were more likely to
have required resuscitation
at deliver...and more likely to have died while
their mother was an inpatient... than infants
born to women who had not had genital mutilation.” (Not Just Skin pg 3.) While the
clitoris is formed with similar nerve tissue that
develops into the penis, this is often why the
removal of the clitoris is compared to the equi
valent of removal of the penis, the clitoris
does not grow into a dangling penis like mass.
The complications range from immediate to
long term including hemorrhaging, the inability
to urinate, tetanus, pelvic inflammation,
cysts, scar tissue, tumors, chronic urinary tr
act infections, bladder
and kidney stones, and
death. These medical complications de
monstrate the horrific effects of FGC on the
health of the girl and obviously
do not present a benefit as those
who practice FGC believe.
A result of FGC is not only painful inte
rcourse, but likewise decreased sexual
pleasure. This lack of a sexual appetite
is one reason given for justification of the
procedure. If a woman does not undergo the
procedure she is believed she will be loose
and promiscuous. The FGC is considered a
safeguard against casual and premarital sex.
The belief that a woman will be unable to control her sexual desire lest she is mutilated is
unreasonable. The belief places all the respons
ibility of sexual promiscuity on the female
and leaves the male unaccountable for his role
in the sexual exchange. This belief again
displays the fear and ignorance embedded around FGC.
The US Federal Prohibition of Female Gen
ital Mutilation Act of 1995 protects us in
the US from these abusive fo
rms of treatment however not
every country holds the same
belief system. While it is tr
ue the tradition of FGC has
long roots in history and hold
For more information on how to create an outline, click here to read Developing an Outline from the Purdue University On-line Writing Lab.
Below are 3 different patterns that you can consider. Also, beneath these are 3 additional outlines that you can print and fill in.
Body Paragraph 1: Present your 1st point and supporting evidence.
Body Paragraph 2: Present your 2nd point and it's supporting evidence.
Body Paragraph 3: Refute your opposition's first point.
Body Paragraph 4: Refute your opposition's second point.
Body Paragraph 2: Refute your opposition's second point.
Body Paragraph 3: Present your first point and supporting evidence.
Body Paragraph 4: Present your second point and supporting evidence.
Body Paragraph 1: Present your first point and it's supporting evidence, which also refutes one of your opposition's claims.
Body Paragraph 2: Present your second point and it's supporting evidence, which also refutes a second opposition claim.
Body Paragraph 3: Present your third point and it's supporting evidence, which also refutes a third opposition claim.